In People v Onyia, 70 AD3d 1202, the defendant and co defendant were charged
with robbery, burglary, criminal use of a firearm and possession of a
weapon. The co-defendant pled guilty and testified against the defendant.
Testimony differed among witnesses as to the number of perpetrators who
had a gun and other facts. The defnedant's request for a missing witness
charge was denied. The defendant was convicted of several counts but acquitted
of possession of a weapon. The court dismissed the use of a firearm count
as a noninclusory concurrent count and sentenced the defendant on the
The appellate court held that the missing witness, the accuser's girlfriend
was present in the apartment when the defendant bought drugs from the
accuser a few minutes before intruders came in brandished a handgun and
The testimony of others and her statement to the police showed she was
knowledgeable about the incident. The prosecution alleged her testimony
would be cumulative to that of the accuser and the co-defendant but their
testimony was contrary on some points and the girlfriend's testimony
could have been helpful.
The court accepted without further inquiry the prosecution's assertion
that the girl could not be found. The Court records do not indicate what
efforts the prosecution took to locate the girlfriend. The Court determined
the girlfriend was under the prosecutions control.
The prosecution failed to rebut the prima facia case established by the
defense. The error in denying the missing witness charge was not harmless.
Judgment was reversed for a new trial.
This case is a good example of the rule of the missing witness charge to
the jury. If the case is pending in any criminal court in New York the
witness list and who is available is very important to the criminal defense.
In any felony or misdemeanor trial the best prepation is to identify each
witness and conduct an interview of that witness to prepare the best criminal